When it comes to choosing the right cannabis, there are many factors to take into consideration. It can be overwhelming, even for the most experienced users. Before a consumer can figure out the right strain, they need to understand why they are using cannabis in the first place. One of the most common distinctions cannabis users make is indica vs. sativa.
Many people use cannabis recreationally, while others consider it a medicine. There’s a great deal of anecdotal evidence suggesting cannabis treats a wide variety of conditions, ranging from chronic pain and depression to anxiety and epilepsy. Each individual’s response is unique. Some believe different varieties of cannabis help with certain conditions better than others.
As anyone who has been to a cannabis dispensary knows, the choice of flower falls into three categories: indica, sativa, and hybrid. But what is the actual difference between them? Is there any empirical data, or is the perceived difference a psychosomatic response to marketing?
Indica vs. Sativa: Is There Actually a Difference?
The most common question heard at a dispensary is simple: “Is this an indica or a sativa?” Unfortunately, despite what budtenders might tell you, there is no credible way to determine the difference between indica vs. sativa.
In addition to important chemical factors, which we will discuss below, the reality is that each person reacts to cannabis differently depending on their individual environment, their own personal biochemical makeup, their emotions at the time of consumption, and other factors.
What is Cannabis Indica vs. Sativa?
The two most familiar chemicals found in cannabis are cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Both belong to a class of compounds called cannabinoids. Both are psychoactive, in the sense that they act on the brain, though only THC is an intoxicant, delivering the potent ‘high’ commonly associated with the plant.
Importantly, there is no empirical evidence to suggest that specific amounts of CBD or THC are unique to indica vs sativa specimens. Though there is not peer-reviewed data, some common medical qualities popularly attributed to indica varieties include:
- Relief of pain and inflammation
- Reduction in nausea
- Muscle relaxation
- An increase in appetite
- Sleep aid
- Relief of stress and anxiety
Is Indica an Upper or a Downer?
Indica cannabis is typically associated with calming properties. According to stoner lore, indica strains are best for those looking for a more relaxed body-high. Sativas are more commonly associated with euphoric, head highs.
What is Cannabis Sativa?
Cannabis sativa is the scientific name for the weed plant. This can be confusing as ‘sativa’ also refers to one of the three categories of weed found at the dispensary.
The fiber from cannabis plants, commonly referred to as hemp, has been used by humans for at least 10,000 years. It was one of the first plants used as a textile fiber and has been used for clothing, paper, ship sails, rope, and more ever since.
But what about the sativa varieties at the dispensary? How are those different from the indica varieties on the next shelf?
Typically, sativa strains are associated with daytime use. Its euphoric effects produce a more ‘heady’ high, said to help the user to be creative and to focus.” By contrast, indicas are said to provide a more body-based high.
What Determines Indica Vs. Sativa?
Generally speaking, the main difference between sativa and indica owes largely to what the budtender says and the consumer’s state of mind. There is no scientific evidence to support claims that indicas provide X reaction and all sativas provide Y. While some common medicinal properties are generally attributed to one or the other, there is a lot of crossover from years of breeding.
Some botanists and scientists don’t believe it’s possible to categorize all varieties of cannabis into just sativa or indica.
One study using over 14,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), genotyped in 81 marijuana and 43 hemp samples, showed that “marijuana strain names often do not reflect a meaningful genetic identity.” Researcher Sean Myles concluded after sequencing the genomes that the labels indica vs. sativa did not correspond with genetic differences in the plant samples. To scientists, this indicates the likelihood that crossbreeding sativa vs indica varieties has made it more difficult to truly define and differentiate the sativa vs indica from one another. Myles says that you can’t “write on the bottle that it’s pinot noir and shove whatever grapes in the bottle.”
Physical Differences Between Indica vs. Sativa
The flowers of indica vs sativa plants that you might buy in a dispensary don’t necessarily have much discernible difference. However growers say the actual plants the buds came from have pre-harvest differences. Indica plants are said to be shorter and bushier, with a denser concentration of flowers. The sativa plant is taller, lankier, with more room for the flowers to spread out. Typically, an indica plant will grow to be approximately 1.5 meters high, while sativa plants can easily grow to over 2 meters, depending on growing conditions.
However, there is no standardization or enforcement when it comes to how cannabis indica vs sativa is labeled or presented. Growers may sell to a dispensary whatever they believe will be best for business and call it whatever they wish. The shop can then label the dried flower whatever it wants in order to sell more products.
Cannabinoids, of which there are more than 100 different kinds, are the primary chemicals produced by the cannabis plant. The two best-known are THC and CBD. Much of today’s cannabis research studyies the different cannabinoids to understand what role they play in the plant and how their levels can impact the effect the plant has on the consumer.
THC is the cannabinoid responsible for the drug’s euphoric effects. The consumption of cannabis with high THC levels increases the production of dopamine in the user’s brain. This can induce slight hallucinations and the feeling of euphoria commonly referred to as the “high” that recreational cannabis consumers look for.
CBD, often the primary cannabinoid sought for medical conditions and wellness benefits, is found in both hemp and cannabis plants. While very similar in chemical structure to THC, CBD is quite different in the effect has on the user. CBD is a psychoactive chemical, in that it has effects on the brain, it not an intoxicant. This makes it especially prized by those who do not want to get high.
CBD is said to help with conditions such as insomnia, pain relief, or anxiety. Like THC it can be infused into an oil for vaping or making edibles. It’s also found in hand creams and other topical products.
CBD is also the key ingredient in Epidiolex, a pharmaceutical drug developed by U.K. firm GW Pharmaceuticals. It is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as a treatment for some severe pediatric seizure disorders.
Cannabinol is another non-intoxicating compound found in cannabis and hemp plants. Some believe it has numerous health and general well-being benefits for those who consume it, similar to CBD. However, CBN’s is even less studied than CBD and its benefits remain unproven. Advocates believe CBN can help patients with sleep issues, reduce inflammation and chronic pains, and help as an appetite stimulant.
Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid (THCA)
Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) is an inactive precursor to THC in the live host plant. When the cannabis flower is decarboxylated, that is, heated to its vaporization temperature, the THCA becomes THC.
Many people consume cannabis raw, in an effort to use THCA for medical purposes. It is said to be one of the reasons raw cannabis has become known as a superfood to a growing number of nutrition specialists and consumers. When used as a raw ingredient in one’s nutritional regimen, some believe THCA can help protect against neurodegenerative diseases and offer the benefit of anti-inflammatory properties. As with other little-studied cannabinoids, there’s very little data to back this up.
Terpenes are not cannabinoids; they are oil compounds found in cannabis and many other plants that have aromatic effects, giving plants their distinct scents.
Terpenes are typically associated with cannabis because of their high concentration and cannabis plants distinct smell. However, terpenes can also be found in a wide variety of plants including menthol plants, neem trees, lavender, pine, and many more. Like in the evolution of other plants, cannabis developed terpenes in order to attract pollinators.
While there is little hard evidence to suggest terpene content influences how cannabis affects users, they are among of the most studied components of cannabis. According to stoner lore, indica strains typically contain earthier terpenes and sativas carry piney or citrus-y scents.
Some of the more common terpenes found in cannabis are:
- Bisabolol has hints of spice and citrus and is generally considered a flowery and sweet aroma. Bisabolol is found in many kush and diesel varieties, among others.
- Caryophyllene has a strong and spicy aroma that can also be found in cloves, hops, and black pepper. Bubba Kush, Sour Diesel, Cookies and Cream, and Candyland are some of the strains said to have high concentrations of caryophyllene.
- Linalool has a light floral aroma with hints of citrus that gives off a generally “clean” smell. Amnesia Haze, Granddaddy Purple, and Lavender Kush are some of the varieties said to have high concentrations of linalool.
- Myrcene,the most common terpenes, has a pleasant aroma with hints of clove, fruits, and a general earthy scent. Grape Ape, Blue Dream, and OG Kush are all said to have high concentrations of myrcene.
- Ocimene can be found in parsley, mint, and basil and typically gives off a woodsy aroma. Lemon Sour Diesel, Golden Goat, and Strawberry Cough are all said to have high concentrations of ocimene.
- Pinene gives off a very piney, jungley aroma and can be found in pine needles, rosemary, basil, and orange peels. Cotton Candy Kush, Big Smooth, and Kosher Tangie are just some of the cannabis varieties said to have high concentrations of pinene.
What Is Hybrid Marijuana?
After decades of underground cross-breeding, essentially all commercially available cannabis is a hybrid, that is, a mix of stereotypically indica and sativa traits. Oftentimes, hybrid flower will be called indica-dominant or sativa-dominant. However, given the state of the research and the blurry line between a hybrid and a pure strain, calling a hybrid ‘sativa dominant’ or ‘indica dominant’ is imprecise at best.
Hybrid fans say it gives users the best of both worlds. But crossbreeding plants can be good for the growers as well. It may help create plants that yield more flowers, for instance, or contain more THC or CBD. Growers and breeders may want to express certain terpenes in the final product as well.
How To Shop For Cannabis?
Understanding why you use cannabis can help you understand how to shop for the right product. Many seasoned users consume different products or types of cannabis for different occasions or at different times of day. For example, one brand of edible might get you high and induce a binge-watch of Netflix, and another flower might put you to sleep. Some users believe the difference owes to expressed terpene levels in the plant, and not THC or CBD.
Once you are clear on why you are consuming cannabis,having an open dialogue with an experienced salesperson at a local dispensary may help you understand which varieties they offer and what they typically do for their average consumer. It’s worth noting that budtenders don’t typically have any medical training are generally motivated to sell you as much as possible. It’s also important to remember that one variety won’t necessarily have the exact same effect on everyone.
Many users find that experimenting is key. Especially with edibles, it’s a good idea to start off by consuming small amounts to avoid unpleasant or unexpected surprises. The last thing you want is to get too high and have a bad experience.
New Cannabis Strains Are Constantly Being Created
Growers (and marketers) are always creating new strains. It’s part of their quest to create the biggest plants, the most potent buds, the best smell, the most intense high, the best medicine possible, etc. If growers see that one of their varieties, let’s call it Cali Sticky Mindbang, is selling well, there is a good chance they’ll breed it with another popular strain, say, the Mendo Boogie Woogie.
The idea is to take the best attributes of the Cali Sticky Mindbang and the Mendo Boogie Woogie to create a super variety that has all of those wonderful attributes. And if it doesn’t produce the super bud they were expecting? No big deal. They move onto their next experiment.
There will always be folks waving the indica flag or singing the praises of sativas. And while there is nothing wrong with choosing a side and sticking with it, it’s important to remember that it is possible to have similar experiences with different varieties not because it came from the sativa/indica plant but because each variety is chemically unique. Different individuals have different physiologies and different mind states throughout the day. This makes it hard to determine precisely what a specific cannabis product will do for you.
When it comes to the age-old debate about indica vs. sativa, it’s best to remember that focusing on an individual specimen is a better way to gauge your preference. There are “indica attributes” in sativa varieties and “sativa attributes” in indica varieties. The best thing you can do is focus on understanding what the individual varieties themselves do for you. Which variety is best for your back pain, for your insomnia, or for your desire for euphoria and a giggle session with your friends.
Cannabis consumption is a personal experience, unique to you and you alone. Your state of mind, your reasons for taking cannabis, the environment you’re in while consuming cannabis, and many other factors can determine your experience way more than the writing on the package that says indica, sativa, or hybrid.